A corporation, also referred to as an invisible hand, lacks no legal capacity since authority is granted to buy and sell real property. A corporation formed through state statutes, therefore, has jurisdiction within just the state unless there is a location of the corporation within another state. Since a corporation is an entity whose operations are performed by representatives, the authority of the corporation entering the contract, is performed by the representatives themselves by signing and accepting the contract on hand.
In order for business contracts to be validated and completed, the representatives must receive the consent of the board of directors. You will never see one representative having the authority to complete business contracts for a corporation, there are checks and balances involved due to the size and legal compliance of a corporation in deeming business contracts.
The reasoning behind such checks and balances in the contract process is due to the interest of the amount of shareholders, directors, employees, creditors, and the community that receives direct impact based on the direction a corporation leads toward. There are five defining factors of a corporation; each factor plays a unique role in the formation and advancement of the corporation.
(1) It has separate legal characteristics, meaning representatives of the corporation may will not be subjected to anything against the corporation unless committed upon personal interests.
(2) Limited liability of the stockholders, meaning if bankruptcy occurs, stockholders are limited to receive what they initially inputted.
(3) Being able to transfer shares through the stock exchange, this allows shares to bought, sold, or traded on the consent of the stockholder.
(4) There is a delegated group of managment, also known as the board of directors, whose consent is needed whenever initiating a task on behalf of the corporation.
(5) Interest of shareholders, which gives shareholders a piece of ownership of the corporation through their investments.
When an investor owns shares within a corporation, there needs to be some sort of perk involved other than collecting dividends off their stocks, which allows for the development of a sense of importance. Shareholders not only have the rights to dividends declared by the company, but they also have voting rights when there is a survey figuring out which direction to head in or what improvements may be enacted. They also have the rights to any return of capital upon advancement or bankruptcy of the corporation itself.
All in all, a corporation consists of the highest value out of all the forms of business in our modern times. A corporation is the only form in which the representatives are completely protected from being liable on behalf of anything the corporation itself is charged with, even within the business contracts realm.
This is primarily due to the fact that there is not one sole decision maker within the firm that may enforce the contract. Each decision on behalf of the corporation involves a body of individuals which hold authority with, and against each other. This is to promote the checks and balances the corporate figures hold over each other.